Appendix B: Data & Methods Data used to complete the contribution analysis was provided by the South Dakota Board of Regents and the university. Data supplied included operating expenditures, capital spending, pay and benefits, and total employees. Primary and secondary data was used to complete the input-output models in IMPLAN. The study approach and economic-impact findings are a conservative estimate of impact and are based on actual financial information. The study is a snapshot of the economic impact of the university. OVERVIEW AND THE IMPLAN MODEL The most common and widely accepted methodology for measuring the economic impacts of economic sectors is input-output (I-O) analysis. At its core, an I-O analysis is a table that records the flow of resources to and from companies/organizations and individuals within a region at a given time. For a specified region such as a state of the nation, the input-output table accounts for all dollar flows among different sectors of the economy in a given period. With this information, a model can then follow how a dollar added into one sector is spent and re-spent in other sectors of the economy, generating outgoing ripples of subsequent economic activity. This chain of economic activity generated by one event is called the “economic multiplier” effect. The primary tool used in the performance of this study is the I-O model and dataset developed and maintained by IMPLAN Group LLC (formerly Minnesota IMPLAN Group Inc.). IMPLAN is a widely accepted and used software model first developed by the U.S. Forest Service in 1972. Data used in the baseline IMPLAN model and data set come largely from federal-government databases. The input-output tables themselves come from the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Much of the annual data on labor, wages, final demand, and other market data comes from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the U.S. Census Bureau, and other government sources. Government agencies, companies, and researchers use IMPLAN to estimate the economic activities associated with spending in a particular industry or on a particular project. The IMPLAN model extends conventional I-O modeling to include the economic relationships among government, industry, and household sectors, allowing IMPLAN to model transfer payments such as taxes. Producers of goods and services must secure labor, raw materials, and other services to produce their product. The resources transferred to the owners of that labor or those raw materials and services are then spent to secure additional goods and services or inputs to the products they sell. For example, an organization in a region may develop a company that produces tractors with a value of $1 million. However, to produce that product, they may be required to spend $500,000 in wages and benefits, $200,000 to suppliers of tractor parts, $100,000 for electricity, $50,000 for transportation of goods and raw materials to and from the plant, and $50,000 in various professional services associated with operating a business (e.g., attorneys and accountants). The suppliers will, in turn, spend those resources on labor and raw materials necessary to produce tractors. Workers and the owners of the company will buy goods and services from other firms in the area (e.g., restaurants and gas stations) and pay taxes. The suppliers, employees, and owners of this second tier will, in turn, spend those resources on other goods and services whether within the study region or elsewhere. The cycle continues until all of the money leaves the region. 18